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Michael Ing

Associate Professor, Department of Religious Studies

Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Religious Studies

Affiliated faculty, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures

Sycamore Hall 203


Ph.D., Harvard University, 2011

Research Interests

Professional Biography

I study texts about ethics and ritual in early and medieval China. In a more general sense, I am interested in issues of vulnerability as they relate to accounts of the human condition, and early Chinese attitudes toward the ability, or inability, of human beings to determine their own welfare.

My first book, The Dysfunction of Ritual in Early Confucianism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), examines a text called the Liji (The Record of Ritual), which purports to be written by Confucius’ immediate disciples. In the book I analyze the ways in which the authors of the Liji coped with the possibility that their rituals might fail to create an ordered world. In short I argue that their concern over the dysfunction of ritual did not undermine their confidence in ritual but rather acted as a productive anxiety that created space for innovation and experimentation within their ritual tradition. This work is situated in the larger discourses of ritual studies, religious ethics, and in the growing field of Chinese philosophy.

My second book, The Vulnerability of Integrity in Early Confucian Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017), is about the necessity and value of vulnerability in human experience. In this book, I bring early Chinese texts into dialogue with questions about the ways in which meaningful things are vulnerable to powers beyond our control, and more specifically how relationships with meaningful others might compel tragic actions.

My current research project looks at themes of grief and resilience in the work of Tao Yuanming (c. 365 - 427). Utilizing the study of grief and mourning to talk about the loss of life and other meaningful things, I look at ways in which Tao coped with disappointment and disaffection as he left his post as a government official to farm his homestead. Tao’s life is marked by dashed hopes, melancholy, and a resilient gaiety that inspires his poetry. In the end, I believe that the thought of Tao Yuanming allows for the exploration of what it means to be resilient in a world where one cannot fulfill one’s most righteous desires.


Courses Recently Taught

Publication Highlights


The Vulnerability of Integrity in Early Confucian Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017.

The Dysfunction of Ritual in Early Confucianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Select Articles

“Two Virtuous Actions Cannot Both be Completed: Rethinking Value Conflicts in Early Confucian Thought.” The Journal of Religious Ethics 44.4 (October 2016): 659-684.

“Philosophy in Western Han Dynasty China (206 BCE – 9CE).” Philosophy Compass 11.6 (June 2016): 289-304.

“Born of Resentment: Yuan 怨 in Early Confucian Thought.” Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15.1 (March 2016): 19-33.

"The Ancients did not Fix Their Graves: Failure in Early Confucian Ritual." Philosophy East & West 62.2 (April 2012): 223-245.


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